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As stated earlier there are two types of wells, hand dug and drilled casings. The hand dug well, unless covered, will accumulate debris from tree limbs, blown leaves and the occasional dead animal. It is best to cover all hand dug wells to keep all unwanted things from the well, including wandering people.
The decomposition of the materials cause methane gas to form near the water level inside the well. Never clean the well sides by immersing yourself down into the well. The methane gas will overcome you and unless you have someone there to pull you up and out of the underground enclosure, YOU WILL DIE!
Wash down the sides of the well with a garden hose after the source has been sanitized with household chlorine bleach. This is the safest and most efficient method of cleaning a hand dug well.
Drilled wells for the most part are easy to maintain and clean. The sides of the well casing are washed down by placing a garden hose down into the casing and let the chlorinated water run down the enclosure walls for a good half-hour. Unless the well has collapsed on itself due to excessive static water pressure or having the well go dry, the drilled well is practically worry free.
Use this link Chlorination and Sanitizing the Water Well for instructions on disinfection of the water well after servicing or flooding.